Download e-book for kindle: An Invitation to Formal Reasoning: The Logic of Terms by Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen

By Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen

ISBN-10: 0754613666

ISBN-13: 9780754613664

This paintings introduces the topic of formal common sense when it comes to a method that's "like syllogistic logic". Its approach, like out of date, conventional syllogistic, is a "term logic". The authors' model of good judgment ("term-function logic", TFL) stocks with Aristotle's syllogistic the perception that the logical varieties of statements which are taken with inferences as premises or conclusions could be construed because the results of connecting pairs of phrases through a logical copula (functor). This perception contrasts markedly with that which informs modern day normal formal common sense ("modern predicate logic", MPL). The booklet is meant as a device for the advent of TFL to the start scholar of common sense. it is also a bankruptcy introducing commonplace MPL. There are a number of workout sections and a precis of the most ideas, legislation and ideas of TFL. For the philosophically orientated there are discussions of vital concerns on the intersections of semantics, metaphysics, epistemology and common sense.

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Every fool is unwise. ****************************************************************** 3. Entailments We noted earlier that the truth of any statement claiming THE EXISTENCE OF SOMETHING THAT IS BOTH X AND Y entails the truth of its converse. In other words if the proposition expressed by 'some X is Y' is true, then the proposition expressed by 'some Y is X' must also be true. And again, to say that one statement entails another is a convenient way of saying that the proposition expressed by the first statement entails the proposition expressed by the second.

In the second diagram the mermaid circle is shaded. By shading the circle we signify that it is empty. Figure 2 represents the negative STATE OF AFFAIRS: the NONEXISTENCE OF MERMAIDS. Figure 2 represents a STOA that is a FACT. Figure 1 represents a STOA that is not a FACT. The two statements that express the depicted STATES are: 1. 2. there are mermaids (Figure 1) there are no mermaids (Figure 2) (1) claims that the EXISTENCE OF MERMAIDS corresponds to a fact. (2) claims that the NONEXISTENCE OF MERMAIDS corresponds to a fact.

Some actors are not rich. 9. Some who are rich are not actors. 10. Every fool is unwise. ****************************************************************** 3. Entailments We noted earlier that the truth of any statement claiming THE EXISTENCE OF SOMETHING THAT IS BOTH X AND Y entails the truth of its converse. In other words if the proposition expressed by 'some X is Y' is true, then the proposition expressed by 'some Y is X' must also be true. And again, to say that one statement entails another is a convenient way of saying that the proposition expressed by the first statement entails the proposition expressed by the second.

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An Invitation to Formal Reasoning: The Logic of Terms by Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen


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